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This learning module introduces students to acid-base titrimetry at a level suitable for an introductory course in analytical chemistry. The module assumes students are comfortable with stoichiometric calculations, particularly as they apply to acid-base reactions, that they are familiar with the general shape of a titration curve, and that they appreciate the difference between a titration’s equivalence point and its end point. The learning module consists of five investigations:

Investigation 1: Titration of a Strong Acid or a Strong Base
Investigation 2: Titration of a Monoprotic Weak Acid or Weak Base
Investigation 3: Titration of a Diprotic Weak Acid or Weak Base
Investigation 4: Titration of a Mixture of Weak Acids or Weak Bases
Investigation 5: Practice Problems–Designing Titrations

In the first four investigations, students explore the effect on a titration curve of the analyte’s properties and the titrant’s properties, including variables such as concentration and pKa or pKb values, and the suitability of different visual indicators. In the last investigation, students design titrations to solve particular analytical problems.


Table of Contents

Note on accessing the learning module.

This learning module is programmed in R (link) using the Shiny (link) package to produce an interactive web-based application. The preferred method for using the application is to run it from within an R session using Shiny by entering


into the console. To download R and Shiny, see the links above. To view and/or fork the code, visit the application’s Github (link) repository.

To access the application without the need for a local installation of R, visit the version hosted at (link); however, access to the hosted version may be limited during periods of high demand.

The list of links to place below this statement is:

  • Hosted Version (link);
  • Github Code (link);
  • Instructor’s Guide (pdf);
  • Assessment Questions: For Assessment questions that accompany this module, please contact David Harvey (

Developed by:

Dr. David Harvey
DePauw University

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