Skip to content Skip to footer

Could toxic pesticides like DDT be responsible for the deaths of large numbers of lesser flamingos at Lake Nakuru, Kenya? While many organochlorine pesticides including DDT have been banned for decades in the US due to their adverse effects on bird populations, especially bald eagles, they are still used for mosquito control in tropical regions of Africa where malaria is epidemic. In addition, East Africa has become an international dumping ground for stockpiles of obsolete pesticides. In this section we explore the possible role of organochlorine pesticides in the flamingo deaths and examine the use of gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to separate, detect and quantify pesticides in Lake Nakuru water samples.

Table of Contents

  • Identifying the Problem (WordPDF)
  • Sampling (WordPDF)
  • Sample Preparation (PDF)
  • Gas Chromatography (WordPDF)
  • Pesticide Analysis by MS (WordPDF)
  • Method Validation (WordPDF)
  • Instructor’s Guide:
    ** For instructor’s guide in a PDF or Word document, please contact Cindy Larive. (
  • EPA Method (PDF)

Developed by:
Dr. Heather A. Bullen
University of Northern Kentucky

Dr. Alanah Fitch
Loyola University – Chicago

Dr. Richard S. Kelly
East Stroudsburg University

Dr. Cynthia K. Larive
University of California – Riverside

About Author