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Can the most prevalent inorganic ions be determined in Lithia water using a representative cross-section of the analytical techniques (e.g. titrimetry, potentiometry, spectroscopy) covered in a typical quantitative analysis course? The analytical chemistry laboratory is well-suited to investigate this mineral-rich water source. In this module, we will examine the role of chemical equilibria, stoichiometry, and univariate statistics in the sample preparation and characterization of Lithia water.

The discovery of mineral springs in the vicinity of Ashland, Oregon sparked the pursuit of a “spa economy” during the 1910s and 1920s. The lithium concentration in this spring, which is the second highest in the U.S., was a marketing point for town leaders in the early 20th century. Even today, Lithia water plays a visible role in the culture and history of Ashland.

These materials may be used as a term-long quantitative analysis laboratory project or as a dry lab using the questions and the data supplied in this module. If this module is used in support of a laboratory activity, instructors may either use an active learning approach, where students are assigned the problems in the modules and are asked to search for appropriate analytical procedures, or students can be assigned laboratory procedures as weekly activities.

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Table of Contents

  • Statement of Problem (Word, PDF)
  • Chemical Equilibria and Sample Preparation (Word, PDF)
  • Principle of Electroneutrality (Word, PDF)
  • Instructor’s Guides
  • Assessment Questions: For Assessment questions that accompany this module, please contact Steve Petrovic (

Royal Society of Chemistry Font

Many of the MS Word files in this module use the “double-harpoon” arrow in chemical reactions at equilibrium. If the user prefers to use Microsoft Word documents from this module, please download and install the Royal Society of Chemistry font in order to see the chemical equilibrium arrows. The PDF files already have the fonts embedded.

Developed by:

Dr. Steven Petrovic
Southern Oregon University

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