Activity vs. Concentration

The photo below provides a demonstration of the difference between activity and concentration using the indicator methyl green. The indicator is yellow in its acid form (beaker a: 1.0 M HCl) and is blue in its base form (beaker d: H2O). In 10 mM HCl the indicator is in its base form (beaker b: 20 mL of 10 mM HCl with 3 drops of methyl green). Adding 20 mL of 5 M LiCl to this solution shifts the indicator’s color to green (beaker c). Although the concentration of H+ in (c) is half of that in (b), the activity of H+ in (c) is greater than that in (b).

Figure11.24

The demonstration shown here is adapted from McCarty, C. G.; Vitz, E. “pH Paradoxes: Demonstrating That It Is Not True That pH ≡ –log[H+],” J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 752–757. This paper provides several additional demonstrations that illustrate the difference between concentration and activity.

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