Category Archives: Photo

Hollow Cathode Lamp

The photo below shows a typical multielemental hollow cathode lamp. The cathode in this lamp is fashioned from an alloy containing Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni, and is surrounded by a glass shield to isolate it from the … Continue reading

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Atomizer for Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

The photos below shows a typical assembly for flame atomization with close-up views of several key components. In the unit shown here, the sample is drawn into the assembly by passing a high-pressure stream of compressed air past the end … Continue reading

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Method of Continuous Variations

The method of continuous variations, also called Job’s method, is used to determine the stoichiometry of a metal-ligand complex. In this method we prepare a series of solutions such that the total moles of metal and ligand, ntotal, in each … Continue reading

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FT-IR Spectrometer

The illustration below shows an FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a diamond ATR sample cell. The inserts show a close-up photo of the sample platform, a sketch of the ATR’s sample slot, and a schematic diagram showing how the source’s radiation … Continue reading

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Sample Cells for UV/Vis and IR Spectroscopy

The photo below shows several examples of sample cells for UV/Vis spectroscopy. From left to right (with path lengths in parentheses): rectangular plastic cuvette (10.0 mm), rectangular quartz cuvette (5.000 mm), rectangular quartz cuvette (1.000 mm), cylindrical quartz cuvette (10.00 … Continue reading

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Wavelength Selection Using an Absorption Filter

The simplest method for isolating a narrow band of radiation is to use an absorption filter, which work by selectively absorbing radiation from one or more regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A simple example of an absorption filter is a … Continue reading

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Indicators for Complexation Titrations

Most indicators for complexation titrations are organic dyes—known as metallochromic indicators—that form stable complexes with metal ions. The indicator, Inm–, is added to the titrand’s solution where it forms a stable complex with the metal ion, MInn–. As we add … Continue reading

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Visual Indicators for Acid-Base Titrations

The illustration below shows the relationship between pH and an indicator’s color. The ladder diagram defines pH values where each of the indicator’s two forms the weak acid form, HIn, which in this example is yellow the weak base form, … Continue reading

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Thermogravimetry

In a thermogravimetric analysis we measure the mass of a sample while heating the sample over time. The top photo shows a typical thermogravimetric analyzer and the bottom photo shows a close-up of the balance pan that holds the sample, … Continue reading

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Homogeneous Precipitation

Two precipitates of PbCrO4 are shown in this photo. The precipitate in the beaker on the left was formed by pouring quickly a solution 0.1 M Pb(NO3)2 into a solution of 0.1 M K2CrO4. The precipitate forms rapidly and consists of … Continue reading

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