DRIFT

To See the World in a Grain of Sand: Recognizing the Origin of the Sand Specimens by DRIFT and Multivariate Exploratory Analysis

Students use DRIFT spectra and multivariate analysis to characterize sands collected from different locations. A principal component analysis shows that the scores for the first and fourth principal component allows students to identify samples collected from different areas. The scores plot distinguishes between samples that are carbonate-rich and that are silicate-rich. For carbonate-rich samples, it is possible to distinguish between those that are dolomite-rich and those that are not; for the silicate-rich samples there is some separation between those samples rich in quartz and those rich in feldspar.

The full citation is here: De Lorenzi Pezzolo, A.  J. Chem. Educ. 2011, 88, 1304–1308 and a link to the article is provided below (subscription to the journal required).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed9000409

The Shell Seeker: What is the Quantity of Shell in the Lido di Venezia Sand? A Calibration DRIFTS Experiment

This experiment uses a novel approach to introduce students to the method of standard additions. To approximate the contribution of shell fragments in sand collected from a beach (in this case, from the seashore at Lido di Venezia, Italy). After obtaining DRIFT spectra of the sand and a powdered seashell (a cockleshell in this case), students identify peaks that serve as markers of the shell’s principle component – CaCO3. Students then measure the response for the sand and the sand spiked with known quantities of the powdered shell.

The full citation is here: De Lorenzi Pezzolo, A.  J. Chem. Educ. 2011, 88, 1298–1303 and a link to the article is provided below (subscription to the journal required).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed100832e